It was a sword that dominated the battlefield in different regions of Europe, it was a sword a thousand years before its time, built by a mysterious master. Despite the fact that it was used by many peoples, it is a Sword that was attributed to Vikings and was used from about 800 to 1100 AD, it was a masterpiece made of pure steel and was no longer seen in Europe for at least a thousand years. It was Role Rolls of its time, and it was used by only a select few warriors.
Why these swords have Ulfbert’s inscription is still a mystery, since it did not appear in the written texts of that time, it could be the name of the place that it was produced, or it could be added to the sword for proof Authenticity, issuance of the application; This is a real sword. Until now it has been proved that a dozen of Ulfbert’s forty-four swords surveyed are completely made of brindle steel, although some of the knockouts are of fairly good quality. The fact that Ulfbert’s swords appear more than two hundred years, proves that they were not produced by one master. According to the latest research of scientists, Ulberchert was actually a Frankish name.
The cross that is present on Ulfbert’s swords may indicate a connection with the Roman Catholic church, since in the Middle Ages the church dominated the Frankish Empire. It is known that the church was a major producer and trader of weapons. The Greek cross, placed before the name, was a practice used only by bishops and abbots, so Ulfberht’s name could be the name of a bishop, abbot or even a monastery.
The rendezvous proved that the swords were very famous on the European battlefields and that they were produced for two hundred and fifty years or more from 850 1100 CE, which makes the researchers believe that Ulfbert was actually one of the most ancient trademarks, a sign qualitative. The purpose of the Iron Smiths was steel, which could hit a hard object and not bend and break, steel that could hold a sharp edge.
Thousands of Ulfbert’s swords were found throughout Europe, most of them were found in rivers or – or were extracted from the Viking burials in Europe and Scandinavia, but only about 170 swords turned out to be Ulfbert’s real swords. These ancient weapons masterpieces have been buried for centuries and are only corroded skeletons of what they were once.
Iron-containing iron was commonly used to make weapons and armor for thousands of years, iron at its discretion was too soft to give a strong weapon so that the producers of swords added carbon from coal or charcoal that solidifies and turns metal into steel. Typical swords of the Viking Age had low carbon characteristics and had a large amount of impurities or slag, a non-metallic part of the ore that was not divided and which weakened the metal.
Blacksmiths across Europe could not create steel without slag, because their fires were simply not hot enough to dilute iron. Today we achieve this by heating the metal to more than three thousand degrees, which accurately removes the slag and allows you to add more carbon.
Comparison of the steel used in Ulfbert’s steel and the widely used steel in the medieval era
In the Viking Age it was very difficult to add coal to the iron, so this was done, by the way, through the fire, and the only way to remove the slag from the metal was to try to work out the impurities. The researchers believed that thousands of swords found on the European continent were made from this lower steel, while Dr. Alan Williams, a consultant to the archeologist in the Wallace collection, analyzed Ulfbert’s sword.
At the time when Ulfbert’s sword was released, no one in Europe knew how to melt iron at extreme temperatures for centuries, in fact, Krushilla’s steel was not in Europe until the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, as the Vikings To master this advanced Technology? Vikings were promoted in many ways, they were not only fearless warriors, but also highly skilled traders and navigators, which are believed to have reached the Americas and Asia.
The route of the Volga
Swordsmen throughout the world made the biggest swords in the history of mankind, one example is the steel of Damascus, which has a similar chemical composition with a metal composition of Ulfbert’s swords. In modern Scandinavia, it was discovered many artifacts that originated from Asia, India and other eastern parts of the world.
Islamic coins were usually traded in Scandinavia. According to researchers, most of Ulfbert’s swords are encountered almost to the same time when the route of the Volga trade was opened, from about 800 to 1100 AD. Scientists believe that the Iron used in Ulfbert’s swords really did come from modern Iran. Researchers believe that the Vikings acquired the material necessary for friendly traders, in exchange for Scandinavian goods, such as fur.
Volga trade became its importance by the 11th century due to the decline in silver production in the Abbasid caliphate, and thus the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, who fled along the Dnieper to the Black Sea and the Byzantine Empire, received more weight. Wikipedia
Metallurgical research of Viking swords
Crucible steel in medieval swords
Secrets of the Viking Sword from NOVA